2018 Census information by variable and quality (Published)

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2018 Census information by variable and quality (Published)

Main types of heating used

The main types of heating used measures the types of heating that are usually used to heat an occupied private dwelling. It indicates the appliances used, and, in most cases, the fuels used (eg heat pump, fixed gas heater, wood burner). Any types of heating that are only used very rarely or are available but not used are excluded. Insulation is not a heating type.

Fuel types used to heat dwellings

The 2018 Census data on fuel types used to heat dwellings measures the main types of fuels used to heat an occupied private dwelling. Main fuel types used refers to those used most often, not every single type used in an occupied private dwelling. More than one main fuel type may be used; for example, electricity, gas, coal, and wood. Insulation is not a fuel type.

Notes on interpretation

  • Main types used means those that the respondent has used most often during periods when heating was required - the type or types they generally rely on. Any forms of heating that a respondent uses relatively rarely compared with others are excluded. Also excluded are any heating types available in the dwelling that are not used at all or are disconnected or broken.

  • The heating types data does not indicate how many heating appliances of each type were used in a dwelling eg it does not indicate the number of heat pumps used, or whether one electric heater or multiple electric heaters were used. Each type of heating reported was recorded once only.

A person is of Māori descent if they are the descendent of a person who has Māori descent or ancestry (these terms are used synonymously).

The term Māori descent is based on a genealogical or biological concept, rather than on cultural affiliation to the Māori ethnic group. Information on cultural affiliations, or ethnicity, is collected in the census question on ethnic group. For the purposes of the Māori descent classification, Cook Island Maori should not be classified to the Māori descent category.

A person is of Māori descent if they are the descendent of a person who has Māori descent or ancestry (these terms are used synonymously).

The term Māori descent is based on a genealogical or biological concept, rather than on cultural affiliation to the Māori ethnic group. Information on cultural affiliations, or ethnicity, is collected in the census question on ethnic group. For the purposes of the Māori descent classification, Cook Island Maori should not be classified to the Māori descent category.

Māori descent electoral: Some adjustments have been applied to the responses to the Māori descent question in instances where we have no response or where the response is not clear 'yes' or 'no'. The purpose of the adjustments is to obtain a 'yes' or 'no' value for every person in the census usually resident population count as every person needs to be assigned to be either of Māori descent or not.

Number of children born is the number of children ever born to each female aged 15 years and over, who usually resides in New Zealand. Stepchildren, adopted children, foster children, and wards of the State are not included.

The word 'alive' has been removed from this question for 2018. Foetal deaths and stillborn children may now be included by respondents. However, the intent of the question is still the same, and respondents were not specifically asked to include foetal deaths and stillbirths.

This number refers to motor vehicles that are available for private use by the usual residents of private dwellings. These vehicles must be mechanically operational, but not necessarily licensed or with a current warrant of fitness.

Motor vehicles include:

  • business vehicles available for private use by people in the dwelling
  • cars, four-wheel drive vehicles, station wagons, trucks, vans, and other vehicles used on public roads
  • hired or long-term leased vehicles
  • vehicles temporarily under repair.

They do not include:

  • farm vehicles not licensed for road use
  • motorbikes or scooters
  • vehicles used only for business
  • vehicles that belong to visitors
  • vehicles occasionally borrowed from another household.

Number of bedrooms

A bedroom is defined as a room that is used, or intended to be used, for sleeping in:

  • a room is considered to be a bedroom if it is furnished as a bedroom, even if it is not being used at the time of data collection. A bedroom should include a sleeping facility such as a bed or mattress and could include items such as a dresser or chest of drawers. It is counted as a bedroom, even if it is not being used on census night.
  • a one-roomed dwelling (for example, a bed-sitting room) is counted as having one bedroom and therefore, one total room.
  • a sleepout adjacent to a private dwelling should be counted if it is furnished as a bedroom and, if used, is used by members of the same household as those living in the dwelling.
  • a caravan adjacent to a private dwelling should be counted only if it is used as a bedroom by members of the same household as those living in the dwelling.

  • another room (such as a living room) that is used as a bedroom at night, either short term or long term, should only be counted as a bedroom if there are no bedroom facilities elsewhere in the dwelling.

Number of rooms

A room is defined as a space in a dwelling that is used, or intended to be used, for habitation and is enclosed by walls reaching from the floor to the ceiling or roof covering, excluding service areas.

The number of rooms includes each attic, bedroom, conservatory, dining room, family room, games room, habitable cellar, hobby room, kitchen, living room, lounge room, studio, and study. Service areas such as bathrooms, corridors, garages, hallways, laundries, pantries, spa rooms, toilets, verandas, and walk-in wardrobes should not be counted as rooms.

If a dwelling is built in an open-plan style, then room equivalents are counted as if they had walls between them. Room equivalents do not apply to a one-roomed dwelling; for example, a bed-sitting room is counted as one room only.

An occupation is a set of jobs that require the performance of similar or identical sets of tasks by employed people aged 15 years and over.

Qualification

A qualification is a formally recognised award for educational or training attainment. Formal recognition means that the qualification is approved by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority or any formally recognised existing approval body in New Zealand or overseas, or their predecessors or any previous approval body.

A qualification is defined as requiring full-time equivalent study of three months or more. Study time is an estimate of the typical time it takes a learner to achieve the learning outcomes of the qualification. This includes direct contact time with teachers and trainers, as well as time spent in studying, assignments, and assessment.

Highest qualification

Highest qualification is derived for people aged 15 years and over and combines highest secondary school qualification and post-school qualification to obtain a single highest qualification by category of attainment.

Qualification

A qualification is a formally recognised award for educational or training attainment. Formal recognition means that the qualification is approved by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority or any formally recognised existing approval body in New Zealand or overseas, or their predecessors or any previous approval body.

A qualification is defined as requiring full-time equivalent study of three months or more. Study time is an estimate of the typical time it takes a learner to achieve the learning outcomes of the qualification. This includes direct contact time with teachers and trainers, as well as time spent in studying, assignments, and assessment.

Highest secondary school qualification

This is the highest secondary school qualification gained by category of attainment and is collected for people aged 15 years and over.

Qualification

A qualification is a formally recognised award for educational or training attainment. Formal recognition means that the qualification is approved by the New Zealand Qualifications Authority or any formally recognised existing approval body in New Zealand or overseas, or their predecessors or any previous approval body.

A qualification is defined as requiring full-time equivalent study of three months or more. Study time is an estimate of the typical time it takes a learner to achieve the learning outcomes of the qualification. This includes direct contact time with teachers and trainers, as well as time spent in studying, assignments, and assessment.

Post-school qualification Post-school qualification is the highest qualification a person aged 15 years and over has gained over and above any school qualifications. Included are qualifications awarded by educational and training institutions, as well as those gained from on-the-job training. Post-school qualification data is produced by level of attainment and by field of study.

In 2018, information is collected on whether the post-school qualification was gained in New Zealand or overseas.

Relationship status is a person's reported status with respect to the marriage laws or customs of the country. It is collected for any person aged 15 years and over, who usually resides in New Zealand.

There are two types of relationship status:

  • legally registered relationship status (previously known as legal marital status): a person's status with respect to registered marriage or registered civil union
  • partnership status in current relationship (previously known as social marital status): a person's status with respect to their current relationship - either partnered or non-partnered.

Civil union

A civil union is a legally registered relationship, which is entered into by two people of the same or opposite-sex who must have entered into the civil union according to the laws and customs of the country in which they entered into the civil union. A civil union also includes opposite-sex couples that have changed their relationship from a marriage to a civil union in New Zealand.

Partnered

A partnered person is related to another person through:

  • marriage or civil union
  • a de facto relationship.

Marriages, civil unions and de facto relationships include both same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples. Same-sex marriage in New Zealand has been legal since 19 August 2013.

De facto relationship

A de facto relationship is between two people who usually reside together as a couple in a relationship in the nature of marriage or civil union, and who are not married to, or in a civil union with, each other.

Religious affiliation is the self-identified association of a person with a religion, denomination, or sub-denominational religious group.

A religion is a set of beliefs and practices that usually involves acknowledging a higher power, and guides people's conduct and morals. Religious affiliation can have multiple responses as people may have affiliation with more than one religion or denomination.

A denomination is a subgroup of a religion. For example, Roman Catholic is a Christian denomination.

Sector of landlord refers to the type of organisation or person from whom households rent or lease private occupied dwellings. It can be the private sector (private person, trust, or business) or the state sector (for example, Housing New Zealand Corporation).

A rented private dwelling is a dwelling that is not owned by the usual resident(s) and for which the usual resident(s) makes rent payments.

A leased private dwelling is a rented dwelling for which the owner has granted another person or group of people exclusive possession for an agreed time period.

The sector of ownership identifies the part of the economy that owns an organisation, enterprise, business, or unit of economic activity. Examples are central or local government, or private ownership.

Sex is the distinction between males and females based on the biological differences in sexual characteristics.

Sources of personal income identifies all the various sources from which a person aged 15 years and over received income in the 12 months ending 6 March 2018.

In the census it is generally only realistic to collect information on money income. This is income that a person can normally recall or can readily retrieve from their financial records. Money income is money flow from the deployment of one's labour, entrepreneurial skills, and assets; and from transfers received. So, the concept of money income relies on identifying its sources.

Excluded are income in kind, unrealised income, and contingent income (contingent income depends on the unknown outcome of a course of action, for example, to sue). Excluded also is money received by borrowing, making withdrawals from savings, and receiving repayments of loan principal; and tax credits and reimbursements of expenses.

Status in employment classifies employed people aged 15 years and over according to whether they were working for themselves or for other people in their main job.

Employed people are categorised into one of the following:

  • paid employee
  • employer
  • self-employed and without employees
  • unpaid family worker.

Participation in education or training measures those attending, studying, or enrolled in tertiary institutions, school, early childhood education, or any other place of education or training. It is grouped into full-time study (20 hours or more a week), part-time study (less than 20 hours a week), and those not studying. In 2013 the subject population for this variable was the census usually resident population aged 15 years and over. In 2018 the subject population is the usually resident population.

Tenure of household indicates whether a household in a private dwelling rents, owns, or holds that dwelling in a family trust, and whether payment is made by the household for the right to reside in that dwelling.

Tenure of household does not refer to the tenure of the land on which the dwelling is situated. A dwelling held in a family trust is owned by the family trust, so the household does not directly own the dwelling.

Total personal income received is the total before-tax income of a person in the 12 months ended 31 March 2018. The information is collected as income bands rather than in actual dollars.

For further information on what was considered as income, please refer to the Sources of personal income - Information by Variable.

Unpaid activities cover activities performed in the four weeks before 6 March 2018, without payment, for people living either in the same household, or outside. This includes any help or voluntary work through any organisation, group, or marae.

Usual residence is the address of the dwelling where a person considers that they usually live. The 2018 Census provides the following guidelines for identifying usual residence:

  • if you are a primary or secondary school student at boarding school, give your home address
  • if you are a tertiary student, give the address where you live during term
  • if you live in more than one dwelling, give the address of the one you most consider to be your home. If you spend equal amounts of time at different addresses, give only one of those addresses
  • children in shared care should give the address where they spend most nights. If children spend equal amounts of time at different addresses, they should give only one of those addresses.

Usual residence indicator describes the relationship between a person's usual residence and their census night address. The four categories for usual residence indicator, excluding residual categories, are:

  • same as census night address
  • elsewhere in New Zealand
  • overseas
  • no fixed abode.

Usual residence one year ago is a person's usual residence on 6 March 2017, which may be different to their current usual residence (6 March 2018).

The usual residence one year ago indicator is a person's usual residence one year ago in relation to their usual residence on 6 March 2018. It provides information on the migration of people within New Zealand and of those who have arrived from overseas over the last year prior to 6 March 2018.

Usual residence one year ago summary provides high-level geographic information by combining 'usual residence one year ago indicator', 'usual residence one year ago', and 'usual residence'.

Usual residence five years ago is a person's usual residence on 5 March 2013, which may be different to their current usual residence (6 March 2018). For the 2018 Census, this is not derived from a census question but by linking of 2018 Census respondents (usual residence in 2018) to their 2013 Census record (usual residence in 2013).

The usual residence five years ago indicator is a person's usual residence five years ago in relation to their usual residence on 6 March 2018. It provides information on the migration of people within New Zealand and of those who have arrived from overseas over the five years prior to 6 March 2018. A respondent is classified as being overseas five years ago if they arrived in New Zealand less than five years ago.

Usual residence five years ago summary provides high-level geographic information by combining 'usual residence five years ago indicator', 'usual residence five years ago', and 'usual residence'.

Weekly rent paid by households is the total amount of money spent weekly by a household on obtaining shelter in a private dwelling. This sum normally excludes payments for the use of furniture and utilities (such as electricity, gas, and water) and for the provision of special services such as washing or cooking.

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